Recognition of foreign judgments in Australia are governed by the Foreign Judgments Act 1991 (Cth). However, the details principles are varied on a case basis. In general, The following conditions must be satisfied:
- The foreign court must have exercised jurisdiction that Australian courts recognise under Foreign Judgments Act 1996 and the Regulation;
- The foreign judgment must be final and conclusive;
- The judgment must be for the payment of a debt or definite sum of money;
- The judgment debt has not been wholly paid by the debtor in the foreign country;
- The judgment must be enforceable in the country of the original court;
- The identity of the parties to the foreign judgment must be the same as the parties to the Australian enforcement proceedings.
Conveyancing & Property
To be eligible for FHOGS, you must:
- Be an Australian citizen or permanent resident over 18 years old; and
- Have never owned or co-owned a home in Australia; and
- Have never received a FHOG in Australia; and
- Occupy the new home as your principal place of residence for a continuous period of at least 6 months commencing within 12 months of completion of the transaction; or
- Move in within 12 months after the construction is complete if you are building a new home.
For new and existing homes, if its dutiable value is less than $650,000, the applicant is eligible for a full exemption from transfer duty. However, if the dutiable value is between $650,000 and $800,000, the applicant is eligible for a concession calculated based on the concession rate.
Divorce & Family Law
Yes, however, you must first seek a Court Order in relation to the validity of the Financial Agreement.
The question of whether a Financial Agreement is valid, enforceable or effective is to be determined by the Court according to the principles of law and equity that are applicable in determining validity, enforceability and effect of contracts and purported contracts, and in proceedings relating to such a Financial Agreement.
If a Financial Agreement is found to be enforceable, it can then be enforced as if it were an order of the Court.
Former Spouses can decide to enter into Consent Orders instead of a Financial Agreement. Each party must seek their own independent legal advice about each option and weigh the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative.
Unlike Financial Agreements, Consent Orders must be filed with the Court for its consideration, and will only be approved if it is satisfied that the proposed Consent Orders are “just and equitable” and will consider all matters disclosed in the accompanying Application for Consent Orders. An Application for Consent Orders will include all usual matters that form the “4-Step Approach” and will consider factors such as the asset pool of the parties, their liabilities, the proposed division as well as each party’s financial and non-financial contributions such provision of childcare and homemaker duties, during the relationship.
Importantly, an Application for Consent Orders must be filed within 12 months from the date that a Divorce Order becomes final, otherwise you will need to seek leave (permission) from the Court before the Application can be filed. Similarly, an Application for Consent Orders made by a former de facto couple must be filed within 24 months from the date of separation, otherwise you will need seek leave from the Court.
Sorry, we cannot do that. We note that there is new policy for witnessing signature during COVID 19, however, Notary Public Authority clarified to all Notary Public Solicitor that notary public service cannot be done via audio or video link.
Yes, you must understand the content and legal effect of the document. Otherwise, you must obtain independent legal advice
A business may leave its marks unregistered. When an infringer uses an unregistered mark or similar ones to suggest a false connection to the business, the business may rely on the laws against ‘passing-off’ and ‘misleading or deceptive conduct’ to stop such use. However, the business will have to prove the reputation behind their marks. Evidence in this regard, sometimes even requiring market surveys, may be expensively to collect.
By registering the marks as trade marks, the business instead needs to prove that an infringer, without the business’ authorisation, has used the trade mark or similar marks on goods and services that the trade mark is registered with – a simpler, more cost effective process.
Wills and Estate
It depends on what is written in the Will. If there is no Will, then intestacy rules apply. Two of the rules are as follows:
- If the deceased leaves a spouse but no children, the spouse is entitled to the whole of the estate.
- If the deceased leaves a spouse and children and the children are all also children of the spouse, the spouse is entitled to the whole of the estate.
At common law, the testator must:
- Be of sound mind, memory and understanding.
- Know and approve of the contents of their will.
- Intend the document to constitute their will.
- Not being acting under the undue influence of another.
- Not be acting as a result of fraud.
A will made by a minor is not valid unless the minor meets some special requirements in the Succession Act.